Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Achiridae
Etymology: Gymnachirus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, cheir = hand (Ref. 45335). More on author: Nichols.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 73 m (Ref. 57178). Subtropical; 36°N - 25°N, 98°W - 73°W (Ref. 57272)
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts to southern Florida in USA, Bahamas, Cayman Islands; also eastern Gulf of Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26938)
Inhabits coastal waters (Ref. 26938). Occurs from shoreline to 183 m depth (Ref. 5521).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.9 - 26.1, mean 24.1 °C (based on 188 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00587 - 0.02825), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .