Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 120 - 2000 m (Ref. 50610). Deep-water
Throughout the world ocean in tropical and temperate latitudes (Ref. 9842). Eastern Atlantic: one specimen from off Cape Bojador south of the Canary Islands; unrecorded specimens taken between Guinea and Angola. Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to the Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 29076). Western Indian Ocean: off Madagascar. Eastern Pacific: one specimen captured off northern central California, USA (Ref. 2850). Western Pacific: Japan to New Caledonia, Australia (Ref. 7300) and New Zealand (Ref. 5755).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5951)
soft rays: 15 - 18. Mouth large, maxillary extending far beyond eye (Ref. 559) Lower jaw projecting beyond the upper (Ref. 559). Teeth on both jaws broad villiform bands (Ref. 559). Body and each fin with minute spinules, the surface velvety to the touch. Lateral line opening as distinct pores (Ref. 559).
Juveniles mesopelagic, adults benthopelagic. Presumably feed on crustaceans.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R. and D.J. Blake, 1990. Barbourisiidae. p. 606. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon, SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4500)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3 - 12.3, mean 7.1 °C (based on 2015 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.41 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 32.9 [17.7, 64.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.402 [0.240, 0.655] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.8 [16.7, 18.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.38 [0.22, 0.69] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.6 [10.5, 45.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.34 [2.40, 28.97] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.474 [0.341, 0.661] mg/100g (wet weight);