Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Gnathanodon: Greek, gnathos = jaw + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 80 m (Ref. 86942), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 35°N - 31°S, 30°E - 77°W
Indo-Pacific: from Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, north to Mie Prefecture, Japan and east to southwestern coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico and Gulf of California to Ecuador (Ref. 9283).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 32.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441); common length : 75.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9283); max. published weight: 15.0 kg (Ref. 30874)
Adults occur in deep lagoon and seaward reefs where they feed by rooting for crustaceans and fossorial invertebrates in the sand but they also feed on small fishes (Ref. 9710, 90102). Small juveniles live among the tentacles of jellyfish (Ref. 9710). Adults form schools and are also noted for their behavior to closely swim around sharks and other large fishes, and also follow divers (Ref. 10361). Juveniles particularly display this piloting behavior to gain protection from likely predators (Ref. 9710, 90102). Marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref. 9283). Juveniles are used in the aquarium trade.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1995. Carangidae. Jureles, pámpanos, cojinúas, zapateros, cocineros, casabes, macarelas, chicharros, jorobados, medregales, pez pilota. p. 940-986. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9283)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.01195 - 0.01522), b=2.96 (2.93 - 2.99), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.14-0.53).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 39.1 [22.5, 70.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.657 [0.425, 1.151] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.4 [19.4, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.14 [0.09, 0.22] g/100g ; Selenium = 61.2 [36.0, 106.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 19.7 [7.0, 52.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.826 [0.557, 1.160] mg/100g (wet weight);