Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 52 - 150 m (Ref. 9072). Temperate; 34°S - 52°S, 163°E - 175°W
Southwest Pacific: restricted to New Zealand.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 10 - 19 cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3243); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258); max. published weight: 2.5 kg (Ref. 3243); max. reported age: 17 years (Ref. 9072)
Inhabits rocky areas to a depth of 150 m (Ref. 9258). Carnivore which feeds mainly on small fish and crabs. Feeds by stalking its prey and swallowing it whole. Adults are home-ranging (Ref. 26966). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 58489.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paulin, C., A. Stewart, C. Roberts and P. McMillan, 1989. New Zealand fish: a complete guide. National Museum of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series No. 19. 279 p. (Ref. 5755)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.5 - 16.5, mean 12.6 °C (based on 29 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00638 - 0.00989), b=3.16 (3.10 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.66; tm=2; tmax=17).
Prior r = 0.44, 95% CL = 0.28 - 0.66, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .