Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Scaridae
(Parrotfishes) > Scarinae
Etymology: Scarus: Greek, skaros = a fish described by anciente writers as a parrot fish; 1601 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 30°N - 32°S
Western Pacific: Thailand to New Caledonia, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Perth and New South Wales in Australia. Recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2935); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2935)
soft rays: 9. This species is distinguished by the following features: 5-7 (usually 6) median predorsal scales; 3 scale rows on cheek 1(5-7), 2(5-7), 3(1-4); pectoral-fin rays 13-15 (usually 14); conical teeth on side of dental plate, none in female and usually 2 on upper and 0-1 on lower of dental plates for terminal male; lips nearly covering dental plates; caudal fin slightly rounded to truncate in female and emarginate in terminal male. Colour of patch covering cheek and gill cover of male orange, wavy band/lines on snout and cheek, pectoral fins pale green; female grey or grey-brown with 2 pale stripes on belly (Ref. 9793, 90102).
Found in silty coastal and offshore areas to 20 m deep (Ref. 90102). Inhabits rocky and coral reefs from tidal pools to at least 10 m deep. Form schools with 30 to 40 individuals. Grazes on benthic algae and corals (Ref. 2935). Reproductively active terminal males become bicolored (Ref. 37816).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E. and J.H. Choat, 1980. Two new parrotfishes of the genus Scarus from the Central and South Pacific, with further examples of sexual dichromatism. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 70:383-419. (Ref. 2689)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 2763 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.01029 - 0.02330), b=3.07 (2.95 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 31.2 [19.1, 51.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.68 [0.44, 0.99] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.5, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.0913 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 17.2 [10.2, 28.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 41.4 [12.2, 134.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.31 [1.62, 3.19] mg/100g (wet weight);