Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 200 - 2600 m (Ref. 6871), usually 500 - 2000 m (Ref. 97389). Deep-water; 65°N - 49°S
Eastern Atlantic: Iceland, Faeroe Islands, Rockall Trough along Ireland to northern France; Canary Islands and off Cap Blanc, Mauritania; Namibia and South Africa (Ref. 5578). Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Chesapeake Bay in USA; southern Brazil. North Pacific: off Japan and California, USA; also 100 km off southern Baja California. South Pacific: off New Zealand and Australia (Ref. 7300).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm OT male/unsexed; (Ref. 26346); 102.5 cm TL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 0. This species is distinguished by the following characters: long, pointed, narrow, depressed snout; relatively large eyes (EYL 7.2-9.0% BDL) and virtually above the mouth (Ref. 97389); knobby tooth plates; a rather long first dorsal fin and spine (spine longer than height of first dorsal fin, DSA 1.3-1.4 times in D1H, Ref. 97389); caudal-fin axis weakly raised with the fin asymmetrical, epaxial caudal-fin lobe narrower than hypaxial lobe (Ref. 97389); upper edge of caudal fin without denticles or tubercles. caudal fin lanceolate with no tubercles on upper edge but with a long terminal filament (Ref. 5578, 6871, 41248).
Found on the continental slope and ocean floor (Ref. 26346). Appears to feed mainly on shellfish and crustaceans (Ref. 6871). Maximum length 120 cm without tail filament (Ref. 26346).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, young hatch at about 10-13 cm (Ref. 26346).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.3 - 9, mean 5.2 (based on 654 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7539 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00288 (0.00111 - 0.00751), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming Fec <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .