Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Myctophiformes
(Lanternfishes) > Myctophidae
(Lanternfishes) > Myctophinae
Etymology: Symbolophorus: Greek, symbolon, ou = mark, signal + Greek, pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335); californiensis: Named after California in the USA (Ref. 6885). More on authors: Eigenmann & Eigenmann.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 557 - 1497 m (Ref. 27311). Subtropical; 55°N - 18°N, 131°E - 112°W
North Pacific: Japan, and from Alaska to Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 19 - 21;
Vertebrae: 37 - 40. Adipose fin short based and slender; pectorals long, reaching beyond pelvic insertion but not reaching anus (Ref. 6885). Black dorsally, silvery on sides; dusky on bases of fins; light from photophores pale green (Ref. 6885). Branchiostegal rays: 9-10 (Ref. 31442).
Epipelagic to mesopelagic, at surface at night (Ref. 31442). Adults feed on small crustaceans (Ref. 11712). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 31442). Lipid content is 4.3 % in fresh body weight, while wax ester is present in trace amounts (Ref. 9197). Preyed upon by fishes, cephalopods, birds and marine mammals. Easily attracted to a light suspended above the water at night and many are captured in dipnets (Ref. 4525).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.4 - 5.2, mean 4.3 (based on 28 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.27 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 2.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .