Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 1 - 55 m, usually 5 - 30 m (Ref. 9298). Tropical; 14°N - 26°S, 87°W - 32°W (Ref. 189)
Western Atlantic: Panama to Trinidad and south to at least Santos, Brazil, perhaps further. Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica to the northern border of Peru at 3°34'S, perhaps further. Also found in freshwater.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 66.30 g (Ref. 118626)
soft rays: 31 - 37. Snout about 3/4 eye diameter; maxilla long, tip pointed, reaching to or a little beyond edge of gill cover; anterior gill rakers mere stumps; hind border of gill cover with a small triangular projection; panamensis-type gill cover canals. Pectoral fin long; anal fin origin below midpoint of dorsal fin base. A silver stripe along flank in small individuals, disappearing with age (Ref. 189).
A coastal species that apparently forms large schools. Enters brackish and fresh waters. Feeds on small fishes (including clupeoids) and prawns (Ref. 12225). Seems to spawn over an extended period in Costa Rica (small fishes caught in February, September and October). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9298).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Probably an extended spawning season in Costa Rica (small fishes caught in February, September and October (Ref. 189). Spawn in school (Ref. 205).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.2 - 28.2, mean 27.4 (based on 122 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00274 - 0.00727), b=3.17 (3.04 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.71 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .