Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes
(Angel sharks) > Squatinidae
Etymology: Squatina: Latin, squatina, -ae = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 4 - 360 m (Ref. 57911), usually 4 - 266 m (Ref. 55667). Subtropical; 20°S - 45°S, 68°W - 40°W (Ref. 57911)
Southwest Atlantic: southern Brazil and Argentina (Ref. 26282).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 74.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 129 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57911); 130.0 cm TL (female); common length : 89.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55667)
Bony fishes were the main food followed by crustaceans and molluscs (Ref. 55667). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Adult males are characterized by the presence of a patch of small spines near the tip of the pectoral fins (Ref. 86510).
Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Only the left ovary is functional (Ref. 57911).
Carvalho-Filho, A., 1992. Peixes: costa Brasileira. Marca D'Agua, Sao Paolo, Brazil. 304 p. (Ref. 26375)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.7 - 20.4, mean 15.8 °C (based on 228 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00273 - 0.01920), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=4-10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (65 of 100) .