Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Nemipteridae
(Threadfin breams, Whiptail breams)
Etymology: Nemipterus: Greek, nema, -atos = filament + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 10 - 125 m (Ref. 9785), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 37°N - 30°S, 31°E - 176°W (Ref. 3810)
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Indo-Malay Archipelago, north to Japan, south to northwestern Australia. This species has generally been treated under the name Nemipterus metopias by most previous authors.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 29.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96003); common length : 21.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
soft rays: 7. Suborbital spine absent. Preopercle with 3 transverse scale rows. Pectoral and pelvic fins short, reaching to just short of level of anus. A line drawn up from posterior edge of suborbital reaching the dorsal profile about 2 to 6 scale rows before origin of dorsal fin. Upper lobe of caudal fin produced into a long yellow trailing filament. Axillary scale present. Color: Upper body reddish, silvery below. Yellow stripes in front of eye through nostrils, and from upper lip to beneath eye. Less distinct golden stripe from behind eye to origin of lateral line.
Benthic on sand bottoms near rocks (Ref. 30573). Swims in groups and feeds on benthic organisms.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Russell, B.C., 1990. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 12. Nemipterid fishes of the world. (Threadfin breams, whiptail breams, monocle breams, dwarf monocle breams, and coral breams). Family Nemipteridae. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of nemipterid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(12):149p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 3810)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.7 - 28.5, mean 27.4 °C (based on 928 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.01067 - 0.02829), b=2.98 (2.85 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 306 [95, 848] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.40, 3.19] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.5, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.267 [0.133, 0.548] g/100g ; Selenium = 49.4 [14.9, 140.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 4.94 [1.27, 29.62] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.878 [0.466, 2.724] mg/100g (wet weight);