Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 189). Tropical; 25°N - 3°N, 85°E - 101°E (Ref. 189)
Eastern Indian Ocean: northeastern Bay of Bengal, from Calcutta south to the Indian Ocean coast of Thailand, perhaps to Pinang.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 41 - 45. Belly with 16 (rarely 17) + 11 to 13 = 27 to 29 keeled scutes from isthmus to anus. Tip of snout on level with upper rim of eye. Maxilla moderate, projecting a little beyond gill cover; first supra-maxilla minute, usually absent; teeth in jaws enlarged, especially in lower jaw. A dark blotch indistinct or absent behind upper part of gill opening; no dark lines along back.
Presumably schooling and inshore. More data needed.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A. and M. Nizinski, 1999. Engraulidae. Anchovies. p. 1698-1706. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the WCP. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9822)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.9 - 29.4, mean 28.7 (based on 68 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00201 - 0.01039), b=3.03 (2.83 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .