Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Engraulidae
(Anchovies) > Coiliinae
Etymology: Thryssa: Greek, thrissa, -es = shad (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 189). Tropical; 31°N - 40°S, 20°W - 88°E (Ref. 189)
Indian Ocean: Madagascar, coasts of Africa from Port Alfred northward to the Persian Gulf but not in the Red Sea, coasts of Pakistan and India, perhaps to Calcutta and off Myanmar, but no records.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5430)
soft rays: 31 - 40. Belly with 16 to 19 + 8 t0 12 = 24 to 30 keeled scutes from isthmus to anus. Maxilla long, reaching beyond base of first pectoral fin ray; minute, oval first supra-maxilla. Lower gill rakers with serrae on the inner edge in distinct clumps in larger fishes. A dark blotch behind upper part of gill opening; inside of gill cavity bright orange.
Coastal pelagic (Ref. 68964). Presumably schooling, occurring inshore and entering estuaries and lagoons (perhaps as nursery areas), but moving further out in rainy seasons when coastal waters are freshened up by rivers. May be caught using ringnets (Ref. 5213). Generally marketed fresh, may be salted or dried (Ref. 5284).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 29.3, mean 27.4 (based on 294 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00369 - 0.01080), b=3.13 (2.98 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .