Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Osmeriformes
(Freshwater smelts) > Retropinnidae
(New Zealand smelts) > Retropinninae
Etymology: Retropinna: Latin, retro = backwards, on the back side + Latin, pinna = thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Weber.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; pelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 10°C - 25°C (Ref. 2059)
Oceania: Australia's east coast from the Fritzroy River southward to at least the Shoalhaven River; throughout most of the Murray-Darling river system; and in Lake Eyre inland drainage system near Longreach, Thompson River.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 7.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); common length : 6.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); max. reported age: 2.00 years (Ref. 4851)
Lives in streams, backwaters, lakes, swamps and estuaries. Occurs in brackish estuaries and inland salt lakes. Most common in slow-flowing streams and still waters, shoaling near the surface or around the cover of aquatic plants and woody debris. Forms large aggregations in open water (Ref. 44894). Feeds on aquatic insects, microcrustaceans and algae. Spawns throughout the Murray-Darling river system. Breeds between July and March (mostly in spring) (Ref. 44894). Spawning temperature is about 15 °C. Newly hatched larvae measure 4.8 mm TL on the average. Eggs are laid among aquatic vegetation and hatch in about 10 days. Sexual maturity is attained by the end of the first year (Ref. 44894). Eaten fresh or canned.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lake, J.S., 1971. Freshwater fishes and rivers of Australia. Thomas Nelson Ltd., Australia. 61 p. (Ref. 4850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6406 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.29 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.31; tm=1; tmax=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .