Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Temperate
Northwest Pacific: southern Hokkaido, Japan to the Yellow Sea, the Gulf of Bo Hai, and the northern part of the East China Sea, including Korea (Ref. 4537).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 20.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); max. published weight: 1.9 kg (Ref. 56370)
Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms in coastal areas (Ref. 9137, 11230). Carnivore, feeds mainly on polychaetes (Ref. 53305).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00673 - 0.00896), b=3.08 (3.04 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.5 (2.8 - 5.5) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 10 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.20-0.36; tmax=10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .