Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfish) > Mochokidae
(Squeakers or upside-down catfishes)
Etymology: Synodontis: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 7.5; dH range: ? - 20. Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 2059); 11°S - 21°S
Africa: in the Congo River basin in the Kasai system, upper Lualaba, Luapula drainage and lakes Mweru and Bangwelo in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia (Ref. 75786, 82238). Also in the upper Zambezi, Okavango (Ref. 7248, 11970, 75786), Cunene, Limpopo (Ref. 3202, 11970, 75786, 82238) and Lake Chiuta (Ref. 75786). Absent from the Lake Tanganyika drainage (Ref. 78218).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3202); max. published weight: 315.00 g (Ref. 7248)
Prefers rocks or marginal vegetation of flowing riverine channels to lagoons or backwaters (Ref. 7248). Feeds on a variety of food including detritus, algae and plant material, insects, snails and small fish, and scavenges readily (Ref. 7248). Eggs and larvae of cichlids have been reported in stomach of this species (Ref. 78218). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Breeds during the summer rainy season (Ref. 7248), with a peak coinciding with heavy rains in January to March (Ref. 13337). Juveniles move off the floodplains when water recedes (Ref. 13337). Grows to a large size (Ref. 246).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Gosse, J.-P., 1986. Mochokidae. p. 105-152. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels, MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3202)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00757 - 0.02297), b=2.93 (2.78 - 3.08), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 1.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .