Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
This large shovelnose ray is distinguished by the following characters: suboval disc, short and broadly rounded snout with nostrils partly covered with a large nasal curtain; sharp thorns present on mid-line of disc and shoulders; behind interorbital space is an ornate pattern of dark-edged bands with distinct triangular or diamond-shaped marking (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Last, P.R., W.T. White, M.R. de Carvalho, B. Séret, M.F.W. Stehmann and G.J.P. Naylor, 2016. Rays of the world. CSIRO Publishing, Comstock Publishing Associates. i-ix + 1-790. (Ref. 114953)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 17.3 - 22.5, mean 20.7 °C (based on 18 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00267 - 0.01964), b=3.00 (2.77 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 35.3 [5.9, 124.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.797 [0.206, 2.094] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [16.9, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.249 [0.120, 0.509] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.8 [8.4, 83.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.21 [3.07, 21.63] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.581 [0.289, 1.418] mg/100g (wet weight);