Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Pardachirus: Greek, pardias, -ou = a fish similar to grey mullet + Greek, cheir = hand (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 15 m (Ref. 3200). Tropical
Western Indian Ocean: Red Sea and Persian Gulf to Durban, South Africa and Sri Lanka (Ref. 30573).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3505)
Occurs in shallow coastal waters, on sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 30573). Feeds mainly on bottom living invertebrates. Marketed fresh. Produces a bitter toxic substance from the bases of the dorsal and anal fin rays that deters predation, even by sharks (Ref. 9710) and thus may prove valuable as a shark repellent (Ref. 4537).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and O. Gon, 1986. Soleidae. p. 868-874. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3200)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.3, mean 28 °C (based on 1176 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00460 - 0.02076), b=3.07 (2.89 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .