Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cichliformes
(Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Cichlasomatinae
Etymology: Amphilophus: Greek, amphi = on both sides + Greek, lophos = crest (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 23°C - 33°C (Ref. 7335); 15°N - 8°N
Central America: Atlantic slope of Nicaragua and Costa Rica (San Juan River drainage, including Lakes Nicaragua, Managua, Masaya and Apoyo).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.4 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36377)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species coloration is mostly bright orange to orange-red in adults; mature males are of larger size, longer fins and with a distinct hump on their heads; aquarists usually refer to the lighter-colored, thin-lipped form as this species.
Lives in box-cut canals with rocky vertical sides, crevices used for spawning and protection of the young (Ref. 5723). Found in lakes; uncommon in the rivers but will penetrate the lower river valleys where the water is slow flowing or tranquil (Ref. 7335). Omnivorous, eating mostly aufwuchs, snails and small fishes (Ref. 7335); also feeds on insect larvae, worms and other bottom-dwelling organisms (Ref. 44091). Majority of this fish has normal cryptic coloration (black, gray or brown), matching the substrate for camouflage and survival purposes. About 10 % of this species is xanthomorphic, undergoing a color metamorphosis at varying stages of growth (Ref. 7335). An experimental fish being used for behavioral studies (Ref. 4537).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawn preferentially on the ceiling of natural caves (Ref. 38966). Deposit eggs on hard substrates, such as rocks or logs; both parents guarding the eggs and the fry for several weeks (Ref. 44091). 300-1000 eggs (Ref. 2060).
Kullander, S.O., 2003. Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36377)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03090 (0.01390 - 0.06869), b=3.02 (2.83 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.47 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=300-1,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .