Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ovalentaria/misc
(Various families in series Ovalentaria) > Pomacentridae
(Damselfishes) > Amphiprioninae
Etymology: Amphiprion: Greek, amphi = on both sides + Greek, prion, -onos = saw (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 38 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 34°N - 22°S, 96°E - 156°E (Ref. 55269)
Western Pacific: Gulf of Thailand and Cocos-Keeling in the eastern Indian Ocean to Samoa and Tonga (Ref. 53797), north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef, and New Caledonia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 6 - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Adults inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 1602). Mainly diurnal. Non-burrowing. Monogamous (Ref. 52884). A protandrous hermaphrodite (Ref. 32166). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Associated with the anemones: Heteractis magnifica (usually), Heteractis crispa, Macrodactyla doreensis, and Stichodactyla gigantea (Ref. 5911). In Bali they occur together with the closely related Indian Ocean species A. akallopison and have even been found sharing the same anemone (Ref. 48636). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35413, 35418, 35420).
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and social (Ref. 52884). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). One pair spawns several times per year. Annual fecundity is estimated to be 2,000 to 4,000 eggs. Size at sex change = 5.4 cm TL (Ref. 55367). Also Ref. 240, 7471.
Allen, G.R., 1991. Damselfishes of the world. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. 271 p. (Ref. 7247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.2 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 668 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01025 - 0.04887), b=2.99 (2.79 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.2 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.48; tm=1.75-1.83; annual Fec=2,000-4,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 114 [53, 217] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.03 [0.55, 2.02] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.1 [15.8, 18.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.261 [0.117, 0.573] g/100g ; Selenium = 20.3 [8.9, 51.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 96.8 [21.0, 422.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.39 [1.43, 3.93] mg/100g (wet weight);