Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Achiridae
Etymology: Apionichthys: Greek, apion = pear + Greek, ichthys = fish; it also exists "a-pion", no fatty (Ref. 45335). More on author: Kaup.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 36798). Tropical
Western Atlantic: estuarine areas of the Orinoco (Venezuela), Corantijn (Suriname), Oyapock, Amazon and Grajaú (Brazil) rivers, and from marine areas under influence of these rivers. Enters low land freshwaters - there are records from Jari River (Brazil) and Corantijn River (Suriname).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 80009); common length : 11.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 40 - 55;
Vertebrae: 34 - 38. Nostril diameter 1.5-2 times orbital diameter; color pattern consisting of a light brown background with irregular, scattered dark brown blotches, the largest ones 2-7 times interorbital space; caudal fin pointed (median rays proportionally longer than external ones); presence of gill openings on both eyed sides; absence of scales on the interorbital space (Ref. 49504).
Rare. Adults occur over sandy-muddy bottoms of the littoral zone and estuaries. Little is known of its biology (Ref. 35237). Maximum length reported to reach 15 cm TL (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ramos, R.T.C., 2003. Systematic review of Apionichthys (Pleuronectiformes: Achiridae), with description of four new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 14(2):97-126. (Ref. 49504)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.9 - 28.1, mean 27.5 °C (based on 102 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00169 - 0.01028), b=3.10 (2.88 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .