Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Achiridae
Etymology: Apionichthys: Greek, apion = pear + Greek, ichthys = fish; it also exists "a-pion", no fatty (Ref. 45335). More on author: Steindachner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Tropical
South America: Amazon basin; there are no records from the Xingu, Tapajós, and Madeira rivers.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.4 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 49504)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 56 - 65;
Vertebrae: 41 - 43. Pronounced dark coloration on most of blind-side head (supracranial area, anterior half of cranial area and cheek, antero-ventral part of opercular area), basal part of dorsal and anal fin rays and pelvic fin; in specimens longer than 19 cm, dark coloration replaced by gray, diffuse color, paler on larger specimens; gill opening on the eyed side forming short slit equal or smaller than nostril diameter; and 92-114 series of scales (Ref. 49504).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ramos, R.T.C., 2003. Achiridae (American soles). p. 666-669. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00169 - 0.01028), b=3.10 (2.88 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .