Bathyraja parmifera, Alaska skate

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Bathyraja parmifera (Bean, 1881)

Alaska skate
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Bathyraja parmifera   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Bathyraja parmifera (Alaska skate)
Bathyraja parmifera
Picture by Orlov, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Arhynchobatidae (Skates)
Etymology: Bathyraja: Greek, bathys = deep + Latin, raja, -ae = a ray (Raja sp) (Ref. 45335);  parmifera: Name from Latin 'parma' meaning shield, and 'fero' for 'to bear', likely in reference to the strong thorns along the midline. (Ref. 89865).  More on author: Bean.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 1450 m (Ref. 56527), usually 120 - 450 m (Ref. 56527).   Boreal; 2°C - 7°C (Ref. 56527)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

North Pacific: Bering Sea to southeastern Alaska.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 93.0, range 81 - 95 cm
Max length : 135 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 85855); max. published weight: 18.2 kg (Ref. 56527)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

This species is distinguished from all other members of the subgenus Arctoraja by having a complete or, uncommonly, an incomplete row of dorsal thorns extending from the nuchal region to the interdorsal; dorsum nearly uniform brown, often with vague dark spotting and a yellowish blotch at pectoral-fin base; and two unique COI haplotypes. It is further distinguished from B. panthera by having fewer total thorns 19-36 (vs. 31-42), fewer tail thorns 15-23 (vs.19-28), internal carotid foramina widely separated (vs. foramina in a single median pit), distal portion of ventral marginal cartilage distolaterally directed and straight (vs. sinusoidal), accessory terminal 2 broadly triangular with short spike (vs. elongate with long spike), distal tip of axial cartilage bluntly rounded (vs. pointed), anterior portion of body short and narrow (vs. longer and wider); tail short (vs. longer); from B. simoterus by its wider interdorsal space 1.0-3.9% TL (vs. 0.5-1.0% TL), fewer precaudal and caudal vertebrae 32-40 and 82-89 (vs. 41 and 90), fewer tail thorns 15-23 (vs. 22-28), larger orbit 4.3-5.3% TL (vs. 2.6-4.8% TL), anterior- and posterior-most postdorsal and postventral foramina of the scapulacoracoid larger than three intervening foramina (vs. three postdorsal foramina slightly smaller posteriorly, posteriormost postventral foramina four times larger than preceding six foramina), distal projection of the ventral marginal directed distolaterally (vs. distally), ventral terminal tear-drop shaped (vs. lanceolate), and dorsal and ventral marginals extend to about a quarter the length of dorsal terminal 2 (vs. extending farther distally to distal tip of dorsal terminal 3); from B. smirnovi by its typically complete dorsal row of thorns (vs. always broadly interrupted between the nuchal and tail thorns), wider interdorsal space (1.0-3.9% TL (vs. 0.1-1.4% TL), distal projection of the ventral marginal projecting distolaterally (vs. distally), ventral terminal tear-drop shaped (vs. lanceolate), and dorsal and ventral marginals extending to about a quarter the length of dorsal terminal 2 (vs. extending farther distally to distal tip of dorsal terminal 3) (Ref. 89865).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

An epi- to mesobenthic species (Ref. 89865). Large individuals are reported to feed on Pleurogrammus monopterygius and miscellaneous other fishes, while the smaller ones feed on crabs and amphipods; in the eastern Bering Sea, mature individuals feed primarily on Theragra chalcogramma, miscellaneous fishes, and Chionocetescrabs (Ref. 89865). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 12.9-15.0 cm long and 8.9-9.1 cm wide (Ref. 41249, 41298).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 27 July 2015

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): -0.5 - 5.8, mean 1.5 (based on 556 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00298 - 0.00464), b=3.11 (3.06 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .