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Bolbometopon muricatum (Valenciennes, 1840)

Green humphead parrotfish
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Scaridae (Parrotfishes) > Scarinae
Etymology: Bolbometopon: Greek, bolbos-ou = onion + Greek, metopon = brow (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 90102).   Tropical; 34°N - 26°S, 32°E - 145°W (Ref. 116632)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa and the Line Islands, north to the Yaeyama and Wake islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 130 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 70.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9793); max. published weight: 46.0 kg (Ref. 2334)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 9. This species is distinguished by the following characters: median predorsal scales 2-4 (may be obscured by hump); 3 scale rows on cheek, 1 (4-6), 2 (3-6), 3 (1-2); pectoral-fin rays 16 or 17; steep profile distinctive; nodules on teeth unique (Ref. 9793); prominent bump on forehead of adult (evident at least 25 cm TL); deep body 2.0-2.5 in SL, with depth increasing with growth; Colour of juveniles brownish to green with 5 vertical rows of whitish spots on side, the primary phase is a dull gray with scattered white spots, gradually becoming uniformly dark green (Ref. 90102, 1602).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Juveniles are found in lagoons while adults inhabit clear outer lagoon and seaward reefs up to depths of at least 30 m (Ref. 9710). They ‘sleep’ in caves and often in shipwrecks at night (Ref. 48636). They are usually in small groups feeding on benthic algae, live corals (Ref. 9710) and shellfishes (Ref. 58784). They sometimes ram their head against corals to facilitate feeding (Ref. 9710). The largest and wariest of the parrotfishes. Assessments showed their vulnerability to overfishing (Ref. 9710).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Also Ref. 103751.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Westneat, Mark | Collaborators

Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Vulnerable (VU) (A2d); Date assessed: 02 March 2007

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25.3 - 29.1, mean 28.2 (based on 2570 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00659 - 0.03029), b=3.04 (2.86 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.7   ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.