Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 165 - 1342 m (Ref. 58426), usually 165 - 215 m (Ref. 42091). Deep-water; 79°N - 38°N, 76°W - 36°E
North Atlantic: English Channel, North Sea, Norwegian coastline, Svalbard, southwestern Barents Sea, off Spitzbergen, Bear Island, the Faeroes and Iceland, southeastern coasts of Greenland. Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada and Greenland.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388); common length : 14.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6696)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Four bony knobs between and behind the eyes. Skin very rough. Body with 3-4 broad, dark vertical bands (Ref. 35388).
Benthic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on polychaetes, mysids, amphipods and pycnogonids. Spawns probably from June to July, ovarian eggs large and few (up to 220) (Ref. 6696). Female lays 200 eggs with a length of 4.5-5 mm (Ref. 35388).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Fedorov, V.V. and J.S. Nelson, 1986. Psychrolutidae. p. 1261-1264. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol 3. (Ref. 6696)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.3 - 7.7, mean 2.6 °C (based on 243 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec = 66).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .