Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 40 - 357 m (Ref. 58302). Subtropical
Eastern Atlantic: southern France to Angola, including the Mediterranean Sea. Widespread in the Indo-Pacific region, from southern Africa to Hawaii.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 260 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953); max. published weight: 290.0 kg (Ref. 114953)
Demersal or benthic on insular and continental shelves (Ref.58048, 58302). Found on sand or mud bottoms, sometimes near coral reefs (Ref. 12951). Feeds on crabs, prawns and small bony fishes (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Caught often by demersal tangle net and longline fisheries operating in shelf waters.Utilized for its meat, cartilage and thorny tail (58048).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 6871)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15 - 21.9, mean 20.2 (based on 25 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .