Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Dicologlossa: Greek, di = two + Greek, kolo = cut + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 10 - 460 m (Ref. 5304), usually 10 - 150 m (Ref. 31498). Subtropical; 47°N - 35°S, 19°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean to the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 17.1, range 17 - 19.9 cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4710); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)
Inhabits mainly sandy or sand-mud bottoms (Ref. 27121). Feeds on a wide range of small bottom-living organisms, mainly crustaceans, polychaete worms, bivalve mollusks, etc. (Ref. 4710). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Minimum depth reported from Ref. 27121.
Desoutter, M., 1990. Soleidae. p. 1037-1049. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5304)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.5 - 27.6, mean 18.2 °C (based on 576 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00641 - 0.00858), b=3.03 (2.99 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.49 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.9 (2.6 - 8.7) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 10 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.38-0.47).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .