Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Hippocampinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335).
Junior synonyms Hippocampus dahli Ogilby, 1908 (more studies needed) and H. planifrons Peters, 1877 are considered valid species according to Lourie et al., 2016 (Ref. 115213).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 52034), usually ? - 20 m (Ref. 30915). Tropical; 42°N - 42°S, 65°E - 132°W
Indo-Pacific: southern India to Japan, Australia and Tahiti. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
Inhabits gravel or sand bottoms around shallow reefs (Ref. 559); muddy estuaries and near mangroves, tolerating brackish waters (Ref. 48635). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall, 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 29.1, mean 28.3 (based on 622 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00173 - 0.01152), b=3.00 (2.78 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 2.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=0.5-1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .