Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Hippoglossina: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335).
This species is placed in the genus Paralichthys Girard, 1858 in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. May 2011: Ref. 86870) following various check-lists and faunas. We follow T. Munroe (pers. comm., June 2011) keeping it in Hippoglossina.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 311 m (Ref. 5951). Temperate; 42°N - 24°N, 81°W - 59°W
Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) and Georges Bank to southern Florida, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Occurs in bays and sounds in the north range; in progressively deeper water to 275 m or more off Florida, USA.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.6 - 23.6, mean 7.9 (based on 76 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00379 - 0.01665), b=3.14 (2.97 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .