Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gonorynchiformes
(Milkfish) > Kneriidae
Etymology: Kneria: From Kner, that studied fishes in the Imperial Museum of Vienna, with Jean Natterer (1817) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Poll.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
Africa: Munte River system (Lufira River tributary, upper Lualaba drainage) in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Ref. 2970, 45434).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2970)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 10;
Vertebrae: 41. Diagnosis: body depth 18-23.2% of standard length (SL); head length 20.3-24.3% SL; snout rounded, wider than long, 26.1-31.5% head length, 94.4-104.3% eye diameter (ED); eye diameter 26.1-30.2% head length; interorbital distance 100-117.4% ED; preorbital distance 38.9-47.8% ED; mouth ventral, wide; lower lip with weakly developed cutting edge; opercular apparatus (only well dveloped in males) consisting of an opercular suction disc followed by a striated, moderately developed postopercular part with about 12 ridges; dorsal and anal fins with 3 unbranched rays; dorsal fin positioned about 0.9-1.1 times closer to tip of snout than to caudal fin origin, inserted at about the same level as pelvic fins; anal fin about halfway pelvic fins and caudal fin origin; pectoral and pelvic fins with a single unbranched ray; pectoral fin 17.3-19.7% SL; body yellowish, dorsal surfaces darker, brownish; dark lateral band not very distinct (Ref. 2970).
Remark: note that the first column in the comparative table in Ref. 2970 (p. 41) contains the morphometrics for K. katangae and the second for K. paucisquamata, contrarily to what is mentioned above the respective columns (T. Musschoot, pers. comm.).
Maximum TL was recorded at 5.5 cm (Ref. 2970).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Poll, M., 1984. Kneriidae. p. 129-133. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3565)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .