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Merluccius productus (Ayres, 1855)

North Pacific hake
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Merluccius productus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes (Cods) > Merlucciidae (Merluccid hakes) > Merlucciinae
Etymology: Merluccius: Latin, mar, maris = the sea + Latin, lucius = pike (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 9316), usually ? - 229 m (Ref. 2850).   Temperate; 51°N - 15°N, 130°W - 77°W (Ref. 58452)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: northern Vancouver Island, Canada to northern part of the Gulf of California. A record from the Gulf of Alaska is doubtful.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 34 - 40 cm
Max length : 91.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371); max. published weight: 1.2 kg (Ref. 4883); max. reported age: 16 years (Ref. 56527)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 48-56; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 40 - 43. Head rather short. Pectoral fin tips usually reaching to or beyond the origin of anal fin. Caudal fin always concave. Color silvery on back grading to whitish ventrally.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit oceanic and coastal areas, but mainly on the continental shelf (Ref. 1371). Although often classified as demersal, the distribution and behavior suggest a largely pelagic existence (Ref. 1371). Adults live in large schools in waters overlying the continental shelf and slope except during the spawning season when they are found several hundred miles seaward (Ref. 1371). A nocturnal feeder (Ref. 6885) that feed on a variety of fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 1371). Important prey for sea lions and small cetaceans (Ref. 2850); also prey of dogfish (Ref. 11384).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 May 2008

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7 - 12.6, mean 8.6 (based on 23 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00603 (0.00387 - 0.00938), b=3.05 (2.91 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=17; tm=4; also Musick et al. 2000 (Ref. 36717)).
Prior r = 0.27, 95% CL = 0.18 - 0.39, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (60 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.