Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Mullus: Latin, mullus = soft (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 328 m (Ref. 56504), usually 100 - 300 m (Ref. 35388). Subtropical; 58°N - 14°N, 32°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: British Isles (occasionally Scandinavia) to Dakar, Senegal, Canary Islands, Mediterranean and Black Sea. Also known from the Azores (Ref. 4845).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 88921); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4845); max. published weight: 680.00 g (Ref. 88921)
Found on gravel, sand and mud bottoms of the continental shelf. Depth range from 10-300 m (Ref. 07313) and up to depth of 328 in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feeds on small benthic crustaceans, worms and mollusks (Ref. 4845). Marketed mainly fresh (Ref. 9987).
Ben-Tuvia, A., 1990. Mullidae. p. 827-829. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7313)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.1 - 15.9, mean 14.2 °C (based on 119 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00789 - 0.00961), b=3.09 (3.06 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.6 (2.7 - 4.3) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 62 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.11-0.5; tmax=11).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .