Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Nematalosa: Greek, nema, -atos = filament + Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; anadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 6898). Tropical; 38°N - 1°N, 47°E - 136°E (Ref. 188)
Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden north to the Persian Gulf, then eastward to the Andaman Sea, South China Sea and the Philippines, and north to southern tip of Korea. Single record from South Africa (Ref. 3259).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 108711); common length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 17 - 26. Dark bluish dorsally, silvery below (Ref. 3259). A dark spot behind gill opening. Belly with 17 to 20 (usually 18) + 9 to 13 (usually 11), total 28 to 32 (usually 30) scutes. Anterior arm of pre-operculum with the third infra-orbital bone immediately above it, no fleshy gap between; lower jaw strongly flared outward. Pectoral axillary scale present; hind edge of scales distinctly toothed.
Known from estuaries and coastal areas, occasionally ascending into the upper reaches of the tidal zone (Ref. 12693). A filter-feeder. Marketed fresh, dried-salted or boiled. Made into fish balls. Very bony.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.2 - 29.2, mean 28.6 (based on 1229 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00792 - 0.01051), b=3.04 (3.00 - 3.08), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.2 ±0.09 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Prior r = 1.13, 95% CL = 0.74 - 1.69, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .