Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Pomacanthidae
Etymology: Pomacanthus: Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 60 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 25°N - 25°S
Indo-West Pacific: East coast of Africa, throughout Indonesia and New Guinea to New Caledonia, north to southern Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Inhabits coastal reefs to at least 30 m (Ref. 9710). Adults often found in pairs inside caves (Ref. 9710, 48636). Juveniles settle in very shallow inshore habitats with short filamentous algae growth on rock or dead coral substrates (Ref. 48636). Feeds on sponges and tunicates (Ref. 48391). Undergoes a complete color transformation from the juvenile to adult stage. Regularly exported, e.g. from Sri Lanka, for the aquarium trade.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Steene, R.C., 1978. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. A.H. & A.W. Reed Pty Ltd., Australia. vol. 1. 144 p. (Ref. 4859)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.3 - 29.1, mean 28.3 °C (based on 1202 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03981 (0.01751 - 0.09051), b=2.88 (2.70 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 29.9 [17.2, 49.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.467 [0.299, 0.765] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.4, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.108 [0.068, 0.168] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.5 [16.2, 57.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 57.8 [15.2, 205.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.14 [0.74, 1.71] mg/100g (wet weight);