Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 100 - 600 m (Ref. 5377), usually 100 - 460 m (Ref. 27000). Deep-water; 43°N - 8°S, 32°W - 16°E
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal, Madeira, the Azores and Mediterranean (Sicily and from the Spanish coast) (Ref. 4570) south to 8°30'S, including Canary Islands and Cape Verde. Reported from São Tomé Island (Ref. 34088).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 52.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4510); common length : 31.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27000)
Occurs on hard bottoms (Ref. 4510). Feeds on fishes and shrimps (Ref. 5377). Females appear to remain smaller, up to 38.4 cm TL in the Canary Islands (Ref. 55964). Males are heavier and larger (Ref. 55965).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N. and L.J. Dempster, 1990. Scorpaenidae. p. 665-679. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4510)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.8 - 16.1, mean 13.9 °C (based on 123 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00997 - 0.01450), b=3.02 (2.97 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.70 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=6-8; K=0.07-0.13; tmax=18).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .