Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range ? - 100 m (Ref. 96339). Subtropical; 35°N - 17°S, 121°W - 73°W
Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Peru.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 58 - 69 cm
Max length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 244); 154.0 cm TL (female)
Adults are found on the continental shelves, more commonly on the littoral zone. Possibly to 154 cm. Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Size at birth 33 to 34 cm. Utilized fresh or frozen for human consumption and also for fishmeal.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.1 - 28.7, mean 24.6 (based on 106 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00177 - 0.00853), b=3.12 (2.95 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .