() > Rhinopristiformes
(Shovelnose rays) > Rhinidae
Etymology: Rhynchobatus: Greek, rhingchos = snout + Greek, batis, -idos = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 35 m (Ref. 106604), usually ? - 35 m (Ref. 27000). Tropical; 28°N - 5°S, 20°W - 10°E (Ref. 114953)
Eastern Atlantic: Congo to Mauritania.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 300 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683); common length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)
Benthic (Ref. 114953). Occurs in shallow coastal waters, more or less stationary. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Adults feed mainly on small bony fishes and invertebrates. Females have litters of 2-5 pups. Maturity size unknown but born at 79-85 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Reiner, F., 1996. Catálogo dos peixes do arquipélago de Cabo Verde. Publ. Avuls. Inst. Port. Invest. Mar. 2:339 p. (Ref. 27000)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.2 - 28, mean 26.5 (based on 100 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5049 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00146 - 0.01036), b=3.11 (2.88 - 3.34), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .