Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.2 - 8.0; dH range: 12 - 25. Temperate; 8°C - 24°C (Ref. 12468)
Europe: Adriatic basin from Soca to Po drainages (Italy, Switzerland, Slovenia) and small coastal streams at Zadar, Croatia. Widely introduced in Italy.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 117028); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 59043)
soft rays: 12. Leucos aula is distinguished from all congeners by having a middle lateral band and a smaller head length, which in fish of comparable size is less than 4.5 times in the SL, except L.
panosi, and more than 4.0 times in the others species. It further differs by having 12 modal scales around caudal peduncle (vs. 14) (Ref. 96829). It can be diagnosed from its congeners in Apennine Peninsula by having the following characters: dorsal and anal fins with 9½ branched rays; 36-42 (usually 38-39) scales along lateral line; mouth subterminal; pelvic, pectoral and anal fins greyish; eye red in life; conspicuous dark brown midlateral stripe from eye to caudal fin base (Ref. 59043).
Found in canals, swamps, lakes and streams with slow current and dense vegetation (Ref. 59043). Prefers to inhabit lakes and still waters of rivers; does not thrive in moderately to fast flowing rivers (Ref. 96829). Lives in groups. Omnivorous, feeding mainly on insect larvae, other invertebrates, algae and aquatic macrophytes. Spawns in small groups composed of one female and several males. Deposits eggs on aquatic vegetation (Ref. 59043). Age at first maturity is 1+ or 2+ for males and 2+ for females; maximum age observed is 7+ years (Ref. 96829). Abundant, but locally declining due to the introduction of Carassius gibelio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Silurus glanis ( in lakes). There are introduced populations locally responsible for extirpation of Rutilus rubilio (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bianco, P.G. and V. Ketmaier, 2014. A revision of the Rutilus complex from Mediterranean Europe with description of a new genus, Sarmarutilus, and a new species, Rutilus stoumboudae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Zootaxa 3481(3):379-402. (Ref. 96829)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00386 - 0.01635), b=3.12 (2.95 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .