Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal. Tropical; 8°N - 2°S
Central and South America: fresh and brackish water along Pacific side from Panama to Ecuador.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9271); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Body elongate, not very robust; nostrils connected through the snout by a narrow flap of skin; eyes small (8 to 12 times in head length); cephalic plate entirely covered with thick granules, its edges striate; lower branch of the first gill arch with 17 gill rakers; adipose fin located over the end of the anal fin, its length two to three times that of the dorsal fin. Body blue-brown or blue-gray; belly white; fins dark with numerous brown spots; maxillary barbels dark gray (Ref. 55763).
Found in estuaries and rivers (Ref. 9271). Feeds on small fishes and benthic invertebrates (Ref. 11482). Marketed fresh and dried-salted (Ref. 9271).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kailola, P.J. and W.A. Bussing, 1995. Ariidae. Bagres marinos. p. 860-886. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9271)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 58010)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00264 - 0.00996), b=3.11 (2.94 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.62 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .