Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes
(Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Scorpaenidae
(Scorpionfishes or rockfishes) > Scorpaeninae
Etymology: Scorpaena: Latin, scorpaena = a kind of fish, 1706 (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Meek & Hildebrand.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 110 m. Tropical; 34°N - 33°S
Western Atlantic: South Carolina, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 5. Occipital pit present; two spines on part of preorbital overlapping maxillary; supplemental preopercular spine present; no dark spot on inner basal part of pectoral fin; dark brown spots on membrane between third and fourth and fifth and seventh dorsal spines; no spines on suborbital ridge; eye diameter 0.9-1.5 times of snout length (Ref. 13608).
Occurs from near shore to 110 m depth.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.7 - 27.9, mean 26.1 (based on 610 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00612 - 0.02713), b=3.01 (2.84 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.2 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .