Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Osmeriformes
(Smelts) > Osmeridae
Etymology: starksi: Named after E.C. Starks, U.S. ichthyologist (Ref. 6885).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range ? - 128 m (Ref. 96339). Temperate; 60°N - 34°N, 144°W - 120°W
Northeast Pacific: southeastern Alaska to Point Arguello in central California, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. reported age: 3 years (Ref. 56049)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Feeds on small shrimp-like crustaceans (Ref. 4563). Caught during the spawning season (Ref. 2850).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 35792). Spawns in the surf at night (Ref. 2850).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.3 - 12.4, mean 9.7 (based on 72 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00183 - 0.00827), b=3.16 (2.97 - 3.35), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tmax=3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .