Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 5 - 500 m (Ref. 10719), usually 50 - 100 m (Ref. 247). Subtropical; 47°N - 29°S, 17°W - 37°E
Eastern Atlantic: Mediterranean and Morocco to Angola.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 160 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); common length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. )
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 0. An angelshark with large thorns on snout and above eyes but not on midback, weakly bifurcated nasal barbels and weakly fringed anterior nasal flaps, the first dorsal-fin origin usually well behind the rear tips of pelvic fin, and prominent white spots on body (Ref. 247)
Found on sand and mud bottom (Ref. 26999) of continental shelves and upper slopes (Ref. 247). Mostly between 50 and 100 m but deeper in the tropics (Ref. 247). Feeds on small fishes (Ref. 247). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Utilized fresh and dried salted for human consumption; liver oil and hide also used (Ref. 247).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Size at birth about 24 to 27 cm TL (Ref. 247).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13 - 19.3, mean 15.3 (based on 133 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00285 - 0.01930), b=3.04 (2.80 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100) .