Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Engraulidae
(Anchovies) > Coiliinae
Etymology: Thryssa: Greek, thrissa, -es = shad (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 1 - 20 m (Ref. 6898). Tropical; 28°N - 40°S, 21°E - 170°E (Ref. 189)
Indo-Pacific: Gulf of Oman south to Port Alfred, no records from the Red Sea and Madagascar; coasts of Pakistan, India, probably Burma; Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines to Taiwan; also the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), northern Australia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and New Hebrides.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9822); common length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9822)
spines: 0. Belly with 25 to 28 keeled scutes. Distinguished from all other Thryssa species and anchovies by the very long maxilla, reaching at least to tip of pectoral fin, usually to pelvic fin base or even to anal fin origin; also unique is the high coronoid process of the lower jaw, the jaw rising steeply in the mouth. Head with gold tints; anal and caudal fins deep yellow; dark spot behind gills.
Presumably schooling occurring mostly (or always ?) close inshore and entering bays and estuaries. Recorded at a temperature range of 26.0-29.0 °C in the Trinity Inlet system, Australia (Ref. 4959). Feeds mainly on crustaceans (zoea larvae, amphipods, Acetes). More data needed, including some functional explanation for the extraordinarily long maxillae. May be caught using ringnets (Ref. 5213). Used as bait in the tuna fishery in the South Pacific.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A. and M. Nizinski, 1999. Engraulidae. Anchovies. p. 1698-1706. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the WCP. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9822)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.5 (based on 3124 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00437 - 0.01201), b=3.15 (3.01 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.48 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 2.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .