Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Tetraodontidae
(Puffers) > Canthigasterinae
Etymology: Canthigaster: Greek, kanthos = the outer or inner corner of the eye, where the lids meet, 1646 + Greek, gaster = stomach (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 16 m (Ref. 33390). Tropical; 30°N - 30°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Galapagos Islands, north to southern Japan and Hawaii, south to the Great Barrier Reef and the Society Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4919)
Inhabit shallow water, often subjected to surge. Juveniles secretive and remain in holes of outer reef flat and reef margin (Ref. 37816). Adults on shallow reef flats in high energy zones to about 10 meters depth. Juveniles among small boulders (Ref. 48637). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feed mainly on algae, but also takes polychaetes, sea urchins, brittle stars, mollusks, tunicates, corals, crustaceans and sponges.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, M.M. and P.C. Heemstra, 1986. Tetraodontidae. p. 894-903. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4919)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.2, mean 28.2 °C (based on 2502 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02818 (0.01190 - 0.06674), b=2.94 (2.73 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 98.9 [37.7, 224.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.895 [0.560, 1.756] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.1, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.128 [0.063, 0.243] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.6 [14.9, 64.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 40.2 [11.5, 140.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.52 [0.96, 2.42] mg/100g (wet weight);